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In the CTMU, tautology is used in a broad sense to refer to various kinds of logical necessity or circularity. In particular, Langan distinguishes three definitions of "tautology".[1] In decreasing order of strength:

1. The self-referential sentential tautologies of 2VL;
2. Less general analytic statements like "daisies are flowers";
3. Any statement that is repetitive or redundant.

Statements meeting definition 1 above are called logical or syntactic tautologies, while those meeting definition 2 are called analytic or semantic tautologies. Syntactic tautologies are true by virtue of their logical form, while semantic tautologies are true by virtue of the meanings of their constituent terms.

The CTMU is based on logical tautology, together with three semantic tautologies known as the Three Ms. By adjoining these three principles to logic, a theory of reality becomes a supertautology.


  1. Langan, Christopher M. Chris Langan to Rick Rosner. Noesis No. 76. December 1992.

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